Russia And The Central Asian Republics

Russia and the Central Asian Republics PDF Book Detail:
Author: Sreemati Ganguli
Publisher: K W Publishers Pvt Limited
ISBN: 9789381904312
Size: 50.54 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
Category : Asia, Central
Languages : en
Pages : 137
View: 6869

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Book Description: For the world, the disintegration of the Soviet Union means the end of the Cold War rivalries between two rival power-blocs, led by the US and the Soviet Union. For Russia, it means, the loss of its earlier superpower status and the beginning of the process of adjusting itself with a new world order. But, most important, Russia became one of the fourteen member-states of the organization, Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), a new entity that was born in place of the USSR. The post-Cold War era signifies, for Russia, a journey to adjust itself to new realities- a new international strategic scenario, the rise of new powers, and its own diminished strength. At the same time, the journey marks Russia's search for a new status in the international order of powers. To attain that goal, Russia felt it absolutely necessary to stay relevant in its immediate neighbourhood and the focus of attention became the Central Asian region, with which Russia shared a common history for nearly two hundred years and still now, they are interdependent and interlinked by their common security concerns in various ways. This book attempts to study the development of Russia's relations with the newly independent, sovereign states of Central Asia in the post-Soviet, post-Cold War context. It argues that unlike during the Tsarist past, in the post-Soviet era, Russia tries to engage the Central Asian Republics in multifarious ways and the development of three such bondings between Russia and these Republics in the spheres of security, energy and migration is analyzed in this study. This book also focuses on the post-Cold war context, as a number of global and regional powers are involved in the Central Asian region as the region is rich in energy resources and can act as a viable trade and transport corridor between Asia and Europe. So, Russia now does not enjoy the advantage of being the only power as the countries of the region have the option of choosing partners, according to their own choices and necessities. This changed context of competition adds a significant dimension to the development of Russia's engagements with these states.

Russian National Security And Foreign Policy In Transition

Russian National Security and Foreign Policy in Transition PDF Book Detail:
Author: Eugene B. Rumer
Publisher: Rand Corporation
ISBN: 9780833016157
Size: 52.22 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
Category : History
Languages : en
Pages : 57
View: 1575

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Book Description: This study is an examination and assessment of critical trends in the evolution of Russian thinking on foreign and national security policy in recent years. The consensus of the Gorbachev and Yeltsin eras that promised rapprochement with the West has been replaced by a new consensus that is pushing Russia toward a more aloof position vis-a-vis the Western alliance as leaders grapple with problems along Russia's immediate periphery and seek to rebuild Russia's sphere of influence. A key issue is the contradiction between U.S. recognition of the newly independent states around Russia's periphery and Russia's special role of oversight throughout the former Soviet Union and pursuit of national interests that might impinge on its neighbor's sovereignty. U.S. policymakers face the task of balancing the newly independent states' right to sovereignty against the need to restore order in a given region and the desire to sustain continuity in U.S.-Russian relations. Although there are no easy solutions, the Western community can play a constructive role while remaining on the periphery.

United Nations Organization Assessment

United Nations Organization Assessment PDF Book Detail:
Author: Andreas Sofroniou
Size: 79.74 MB
Format: PDF, Docs
Category :
Languages : en
Pages : 176
View: 7183

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Book Description: The United Nations as an international organization was established on October 24, 1945. The United Nations was the second multipurpose international organization established in the 20th century that was worldwide in scope and membership. Its predecessor, the League of Nations, was created by the Treaty of Versailles in 1919 and disbanded in 1946. Headquartered in New York City, the UN also has offices in Geneva, Vienna, and other cities. Its official languages are Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian, and Spanish. Assessment of the UN political relations and functionsThe United Nations is the only global international organization that serves multiple functions in international relations. The UN was designed to ensure international peace and security, and its founders realized that peace and security could not be achieved without attention to issues of rights-including political, legal, economic, social, environmental, and individual. Yet the UN has faced difficulties in achieving its goals, because its organizational structure still reflects the power relationships of the immediate post-1945 world, despite the fact that the world has changed dramatically-particularly with respect to the post-Cold War relationship between the United States and Russia and the dramatic increase in the number of independent states. The UN is a reflection of the realities of international politics, and the world's political and economic divisions are revealed in the voting arrangements of the Security Council, the blocs and cleavages of the General Assembly, the different viewpoints within the Secretariat, the divisions present at global conferences, and the financial and budgetary processes.Despite its intensively political nature, the UN has transformed itself and some aspects of international politics. Decolonization was successfully accomplished, and the many newly independent states joined the international community and have helped to shape a new international agenda. The UN has utilized Charter provisions to develop innovative methods to address peace and security issues. The organization has tried new approaches to economic development, encouraging the establishment of specialized organizations to meet specific needs.It has organized global conferences on urgent international issues, thereby placing new issues on the international agenda and allowing greater participation by national states, organisations and individuals.Not-withstanding its accomplishments, the United Nations still operate under the basic provision of respect for national sovereignty and non-interference in the domestic affairs of states. The norm of national sovereignty, however, runs into persistent conflict with the constant demand by many in the international community that the UN take a more active role in combating aggression and alleviating international problems. For example, the United States appealed to the issue of national sovereignty to justify its opposition to the Convention on the Rights of the Child and the International Criminal Court. Thus it is likely that the UN will continue to be seen by its critics as either too timid or too omnipotent as it is asked to resolve the most pressing problems faced by the world's most vulnerable citizens.Global relations and the world powersModern international law, sometimes called the law of nations, has evolved over the last 400 years. The three major sources of international law according to Article 38 of the Statute of the International Court of Justice are: -International conventions or treaties; -International customs; and the -General principles of law as recognized by civilized nations.