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Microbial Evolution Under Extreme Conditions

Microbial Evolution under Extreme Conditions PDF

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Author: Corien Bakermans
Publisher: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG
ISBN: 3110340712
Size: 34.13 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
Category : Nature
Languages : en
Pages : 290
View: 6142


Today's microorganisms represent the vast majority of biodiversity on Earth and have survived nearly 4 billion years of evolutionary change. However, we still know little about the processes of evolution as applied to microorganisms and microbial populations. Microbial evolution occurred and continues to take place in a vast variety of environmental conditions that range from anoxic to oxic, from hot to cold, from free-living to symbiotic, etc. Some of these physicochemical conditions are considered "extreme", particularly when inhabitants are limited to microorganisms. It is easy to imagine that microbial life in extreme environments is somehow more constrained and perhaps subjected to different evolutionary pressures. But what do we actually know about microbial evolution under extreme conditions and how can we apply that knowledge to other conditions? Appealingly, extreme environments with their relatively limited numbers of inhabitants can serve as good model systems for the study of evolutionary processes. A look at the microbial inhabitants of today's extreme environments provides a snapshot in time of evolution and adaptation to extreme conditions. These adaptations manifest at different levels from established communities and species to genome content and changes in specific genes that result in altered function or gene expression. But as a recent (2011) report from the American Academy of Microbiology observes: "A complex issue in the study of microbial evolution is unraveling the process of evolution from that of adaptation. In many cases, microbes have the capacity to adapt to various environmental changes by changing gene expression or community composition as opposed to having to evolve entirely new capabilities." We have learned much about how microbes are adapted to extreme conditions but relatively little is known about these adaptations evolved. How did the different processes of evolution such as mutation, immigration, horizontal (lateral) gene transfer, recombination, hybridization, genetic drift, fixation, positive and negative selection, and selective screens contribute to the evolution of these genes, genomes, microbial species, communities, and functions? What are typical rates of these processes? How prevalent are each of these processes under different conditions? This book explores the current state of knowledge about microbial evolution under extreme conditions and addresses the following questions: What is known about the processes of microbial evolution (mechanisms, rates, etc.) under extreme conditions? Can this knowledge be applied to other systems and what is the broader relevance? What remains unknown and requires future research? These questions will be addressed from several perspectives including different extreme environments, specific organisms, and specific evolutionary processes.

Ecology Of Protozoa

Ecology of Protozoa PDF

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Author: Tom Fenchel
Publisher: Springer-Verlag
ISBN: 3662259818
Size: 67.42 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
Category : Science
Languages : de
Pages : 197
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Life Sciences And Space Research Xxiii 2

Life Sciences and Space Research XXIII 2  PDF

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Author: COSPAR. Plenary Meeting
Publisher: Pergamon
ISBN:
Size: 51.77 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
Category : Anaerobic bacteria
Languages : en
Pages : 219
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New Scientist

New Scientist PDF

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Author:
Publisher:
ISBN:
Size: 53.74 MB
Format: PDF
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages :
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Peterson S Graduate Programs In The Physical Sciences Mathematics Agricultural Sciences The Environment And Natural Resources 2007

Peterson s Graduate Programs in the Physical Sciences  Mathematics  Agricultural Sciences  the Environment and Natural Resources 2007 PDF

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Author: Peterson's Guides Staff
Publisher: Petersons
ISBN: 9780768921557
Size: 70.65 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
Category : Education
Languages : en
Pages : 751
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Offers information on entrance and degree requirements, expenses and financial aid, programs of study, and faculty research specialties.

Rapports Et Proc S Verbaux Des R Unions

Rapports et proc  s verbaux des r  unions PDF

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Author: International Commission for the Scientific Exploration of the Mediterranean Sea
Publisher:
ISBN:
Size: 17.66 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
Category : Oceanography
Languages : en
Pages :
View: 5842



Contributions To Science

Contributions to Science PDF

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Author:
Publisher:
ISBN:
Size: 22.59 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
Category : Research
Languages : en
Pages :
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Protozoology

Protozoology PDF

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Author: Klaus Hausmann
Publisher:
ISBN: 9783131103017
Size: 37.13 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
Category : Protozoology
Languages : en
Pages : 338
View: 1097


The introductory textbook "Protozoology" deals with one of the five kingdoms of living organisms: the Protista. The text is intended to be used by upper division college students & graduates who are enrolled in protozoa. It also can be used as reference text which outlines this group for researchers, instructors, or authors of textbooks directed at a more general audience.

Chemtracts

Chemtracts PDF

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Author:
Publisher:
ISBN:
Size: 65.32 MB
Format: PDF
Category : Biochemistry
Languages : en
Pages :
View: 1725


Consists of reviews, condensations, and commentaries.

Enigmatic Microorganisms And Life In Extreme Environments

Enigmatic Microorganisms and Life in Extreme Environments PDF

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Author: Joseph Seckbach
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401148384
Size: 26.46 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
Category : Medical
Languages : en
Pages : 687
View: 5675


Modern methods and approaches, such as the analysis of molecular sequences to infer evolutionary relationships among organisms, have provided vast new sets of data to further our understanding ofliving organisms, but there remain enigmas in the biological world that will keep scientists working and thinking for decades. Microorganisms by virtue of their small size and almost unbounded diversity provide ample examples of intriguing mysteries that are being challenged with all of the techniques the modern scientific arsenal can provide. One whole arena of this battle to resolve puzzling mysteries about various microorganisms is the almost unbelievable ability of many micro-organisms to live in extreme environments. Whether the challenge is extreme heat, cold, pressure, hyper salinity, alkalinity or acidity, some micro-organisms live now where no life might seem possible. This fascinating state of affairs is the context for this present volume edited by Joseph Seckbach. This Volume is a compilation of many of the especially interesting questions and biological challenges that arise in the consideration of microorganisms in general and the extremophiles in particular.

Energy And Water Development Appropriations For 1998

Energy and Water Development Appropriations for 1998 PDF

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Author: United States. Congress. House. Committee on Appropriations. Subcommittee on Energy and Water Development
Publisher:
ISBN:
Size: 70.72 MB
Format: PDF
Category : Energy development
Languages : en
Pages :
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Energy And Water Development Appropriations For 1998 Testimony Of Members Of Congress And Other Interested Individuals And Organizations

Energy and Water Development Appropriations for 1998  Testimony of members of Congress and other interested individuals and organizations PDF

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Author: United States. Congress. House. Committee on Appropriations. Subcommittee on Energy and Water Development
Publisher:
ISBN:
Size: 12.48 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
Category : Energy development
Languages : en
Pages :
View: 233



Carbon Cycles And Climate

Carbon Cycles and Climate PDF

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Author: Jerry S. Olson
Publisher:
ISBN:
Size: 49.14 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
Category : Carbon cycle (Biogeochemistry)
Languages : en
Pages : 179
View: 4962


This partially annotated bibliography contains the first 1000 references from a computerized file of literature on the global ecological implications of carbon cycles and climatic changes. Many early citations originated from the Biogeochemical Ecological Information Center established at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in 1968 and from profiles of computerized files such as Government Research Abstracts (GRA) and Biological Abstracts (BA). Later citations have been extracted from the open literature through 1978 and early 1979, from government reports and impact statements, and from profiles of GRA, BA, and the Energy Data Base of the Department of Energy Technical Information Center, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The subject categories covered by this bibliography may be divided into two main topics: carbon cycling and climate system analysis. Volume I contains an introduction and overview. Volume 2 contains an alphabetical (by author) listing of citations. Volume 3 provides indexes for author, organization (corporate authority), keywords (or free index terms), taxonomic category, subject category, Chemical Abstracts codes, Biological Abstracts codes (crosscode), and COSATI/Weekly Government Abstracts codes concentrated with permuted title words.

Applied Microbiology

Applied Microbiology PDF

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Author: Sanjai Saxena
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 8132222598
Size: 17.42 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
Category : Medical
Languages : en
Pages : 190
View: 6806


The book is oriented towards undergraduates science and engineering students; postgraduates and researchers pursuing the field of microbiology, biotechnology, chemical - biochemical engineering and pharmacy. Various applications of microorganisms have been covered broadly and have been appropriately reflected in depth in 12 different chapters. The book begins with an insight to the diverse niche of microorganisms which have been explored and exploited in development of various biotechnological products and green processes. Further, how these microorganisms have been genetically modified to improve the desired traits for achieving optimal production of microbially derived products is discussed in the second chapter. Major route of production of microbially derived products and processes is through fermentation technology and therefore due emphasis on different aspects of fermentation technology has been given in the subsequent chapter. The development and deployment of biopesticides and biofertilizers which find tremendous application have been separately discussed under agricultural applications. Application of microbes for the removal of pollutants, recovery of metals and oils has also been discussed under environmental applications. The role of microbial systems in development of fermented foods and beverages have also been discussed in Chapter 6. The application of microbes in production of commodity chemicals and fine chemicals has also been discussed in separate chapters. A chapter has been dedicated to the tremendous applications of microbially produced enzymes in different industrial sectors. Another unique facet of this book is explaining the different methods by which desired traits of microorganisms have been improved for their efficacious and economical exploitation in the industry. A chapter is dedicated to exploitation of microorganisms in development of vaccines for human and veterinary use. Finally, the last chapter discusses the role of immobilization in optimization of industrial processes and development of microbial biosensors for industrial applications. Thus, this book is a holistic approach providing information on the present applications of microorganisms.

Forensic Microbiology

Forensic Microbiology PDF

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Author: David O. Carter
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1119062578
Size: 57.73 MB
Format: PDF, Docs
Category : Law
Languages : en
Pages : 424
View: 1011


Forensic Microbiology focuses on newly emerging areas of microbiology relevant to medicolegal and criminal investigations: postmortem changes, establishing cause of death, estimating postmortem interval, and trace evidence analysis. Recent developments in sequencing technology allow researchers, and potentially practitioners, to examine microbial communities at unprecedented resolution and in multidisciplinary contexts. This detailed study of microbes facilitates the development of new forensic tools that use the structure and function of microbial communities as physical evidence. Chapters cover: Experiment design Data analysis Sample preservation The influence of microbes on results from autopsy, toxicology, and histology Decomposition ecology Trace evidence This diverse, rapidly evolving field of study has the potential to provide high quality microbial evidence which can be replicated across laboratories, providing spatial and temporal evidence which could be crucial in a broad range of investigative contexts. This book is intended as a resource for students, microbiologists, investigators, pathologists, and other forensic science professionals.

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